14 Reasons Joseph Could Have Created the Endowment

True Endowment Pentecost

The temple endowment is one of the most defining features of Mormonism. I remember when I first went through the temple. I didn’t know what to expect in the slightest. Of course, there is a lot of symbolism however that is completely lost on most people the first time through. Recently there has been a concerted effort to say that Joseph couldn’t or wouldn’t have created the first Endowment. It had to be a later invention. I believe Joseph did in fact administer the first endowments, however maybe not for reasons we may initially think of.


In looking at this subject there is a lot of evidence that can go either way. There is also a lot of personal testimonies which all seem to be written several years after the fact. These are tempting to use, however they are all inherently biased by the large separation between those that followed Brigham and those that didn’t. Based on this then they can certainly be supplemental evidences, but shouldn’t be primary ones. In this analysis I will only focus on contemporary evidence. However, of course in making any kind of final decision then we can include the supplemental testimonies personally.

In researching church history, I am not sure why things have to be so complicated. If the church was started today, then we would have so much more information for future generations. However, of course the people today would never accept the church being started like it was in the first place. I think the future work of God will likely suffer from the same issues as Joseph faced. Most people believe in God, but very few actually believe God. If somebody said today that God visited them in a grove, then we would put them on medication and hide them away.

The following is a list of evidences to suggest that Joseph certainly could have created something like the LDS endowment. Of course, we will never know for sure until we get more concrete information. It is also very important to separate the truthfulness of the endowment with the author of the endowment. Just because a certain person says or does something then that doesn’t automatically make it true or of God.

Prophets can be wrong and can be used to test people. God said, in Book of Commandments 4, that we would either be his people or Satan’s people. I believe this is very real. Hopefully this is not new information to anyone. God uses us in whatever capacity we are willing to be used. Scripturally he also had used his servants to remove light and truth from his people.

However, most of the time we get in our own way and cause God to have to redo things. It must be terribly frustrating to be God. Of course, with a list like this, if you don’t like or agree with a single item then just skip it. No single item is needed to illustrate the overall picture. Lastly, none of these items are in any particular order.

1. Cutlerites

One of the strongest evidences to me, that Joseph created the endowment, is the Cutlerite branch of Mormonism which adopted a similar endowment while completely rejecting Brigham Young as their leader. Alpheus Cutler was a member of the Nauvoo High Council, a member of the Council of Fifty, and was the individual responsible for choosing the location of Winter Quarters. He was incredibly influential in early Mormonism to say the least and of course personally associated with Joseph on numerous occasions. It is recorded that he was part of the Anointed Quorum group on October 12th, 1843, that would meet and administer the ordinances to a select group of people.

After the death of Joseph, Alpheus slowly separated himself from the church and was eventually excommunicated on April 20th, 1851, because he wouldn’t recognize Brigham as the rightful leader of the church. Even after this point though, Brigham continued to write to Alpheus and even offered him full membership if he would reconsider. Alpheus though was firmly committed to his ideas.

The interesting thing about Alpheus, is that on September 19th, 1853, he met with a group of believers and organized a church which was called The Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite). This group administered baptisms for the dead and an endowment ceremony, which Alpheus very likely was a personal witness to, when he was in Nauvoo.

Of course he could have taken them from Brigham, however why would he do that since he didn’t consider Brigham to be a legitimate leader of the people? It makes far more sense that he got them from Joseph in Nauvoo. In reviewing the Cutlerite beliefs, I think it is interesting that they follow a model very similar to the one adopted by the church in Kirtland. This model, I believe, will be similar to the one Christ’s church will use in the future.

2. Private Doctrines

One statement that has made the rounds several times, is a quote from Joseph where he says that he always teaches stronger doctrines publicly versus what he teaches privately. This was said in a June 16th, 1844, conference talk recorded by Thomas Bullock. I have heard this quote so many times. However, this is not how people work. I know I personally have said stronger things privately than I do publicly and I would imagine most everyone else is the same.

We know however that Joseph taught, on multiple occasions, private doctrines. In an April 28th, 1842, Relief Society meeting, it is recorded that Joseph was upset that people were taking his private doctrines and publicly proclaiming them as their own revelations. The meeting minutes record:

President Smith continued by speaking of the difficulties he had to surmount ever since the commencement of the work in consequence of aspiring men … who had caused him much trouble, whom he had taught in the private counsel; and they would go forth into the world and ploclaim [proclaim] the things he had taught them; as their own revelations

Joseph Smith – Relief Society Meeting Minutes

Joseph is clear that he was saying things privately that he didn’t want to be spoken of publicly. This of course would be a very strange thing to say if Joseph always taught stronger doctrines publicly versus what he taught privately. However, it would be entirely consistent if instead Joseph was like all of us and said things privately that he didn’t always want to be spoken publicly.

3. Line Upon Line

In comparing the Palmyra or Kirtland church against the Nauvoo church then we can see that Joseph was willing to make radical changes in the accepted doctrines of the church. Many would rightly claim this to be an example of “further light and truth”, however at the time many of them were certainly seen as fairly radical.

For instance, if we just look at two cases, Baptisms for the Dead, and the King Follett discourse, then we can see a radical departure from the rest of Christianity. In the first instance, Baptisms for the Dead, then we can see Joseph introduced the concept of receiving an essential ordinance, that of Baptism, by a living proxy. This ordinance can then be accepted or rejected by the deceased person. However, if they wanted to be with God then they would be required to accept the ordinance and live according to the covenants in the ordinance.

This of course is a huge departure from the rest of Christianity that saw Baptism as important, but not necessary. Certainly not necessary for those that have died as there was no way to baptism them. It is interesting to note though that in D&C 128:17-18, Joseph clearly mentions that the welding link between generations is Baptisms for the Dead, not the supposed sealing power from Elijah in the Kirtland temple.

The last case is the King Follett discourse, which was given on April 7th, 1844. Some have claimed that Joseph never gave this sermon, however it was accurately recorded by 4 different people therefore this claim is highly unlikely. Each account is slightly different, though they all agree on the major points which is helpful. In the discourse, Joseph makes a few major claims that depart so wildly from the rest of Christianity that the Nauvoo Expositor even mentioned them as major problems with Mormonism.

The major claims that Joseph makes are:

  1. God was once a man and has worked his way through various stages to the point he is now. There are God’s above God and God’s above those God’s.
  2. Intelligences were never created but are eternal along with God.
  3. There is a divine plan of salvation and exaltation for the human family.
  4. There is a priesthood power to seal individuals for all eternity.
  5. God has a body and needed to die and be resurrection, just like we would need to, in order to progress.

Each one of these points is a huge departure from the beliefs of his day. Therefore, I think it is entirely valid to say that Joseph was willing to change things as he saw fit. He certainly didn’t feel the need to stay within the mainstream Christianity umbrella of his day. Introducing a physical endowment, that would be a representation of the spiritual Kirtland endowment, would certainly be consistent with the rest of his actions.

4. Only in Temple

Another example of a selective quote that constantly floats around the internet is a May 1st, 1842, discourse where Joseph says a temple is needed in order to reveal certain things. However if we look at the full text of the quote then we can see that is not entirely true. Yes a temple is needed, however there is a massive exception to that rule. Joseph mentioned:

The keys are certain signs & words by which false spirits & personages may be detected from true.— which cannot be revealed to the Elders till the Temple is completed.—The rich can only get them in the Temple. The poor may get them on the Mountain top as did moses.

Joseph Smith – May 1st, 1842 discourse

Yes, Joseph is saying a temple is needed for certain things. However, the “poor”, whoever those are, can get them outside of the temple. This aligns perfectly with D&C 124 which was received about a year before this discourse was given. In D&C 124, God commands the members to build a temple for their baptisms for the dead, however God clearly mentions that before that is complete their baptisms would be acceptable outside of the temple. This pattern seems very consistent so I don’t see why we would expect a binary state where we either have it or we don’t since none of the rest of Joseph’s work was like that.

5. Heber’s Journal

In Heber C. Kimballs journal, Heber records an entry for June 1842 which is very important. He likely meant May 1842, however that is not all that important. May though would match with the other accounts of this event. In this account though, Heber is mentioning that he entered into a special order of the priesthood which is entirely consistent with every other description of the endowment we have.

Heber’s journal entry reads:

I [Heber C. Kimball] was aniciated [initiated] into the ancient order[,] was washed and annointed and Sealled and ordained a Preast, and so forth in company with nine others, Viz. Jos[e]ph Smith, Hiram Smith, W[illiam. Law, W[illia]m. Marks, Judge [James] Adams, Brigham Young, Willard Richards, George Miller, N[ewel]. K. Whitney

Heber C. Kimball – June [May] 1842 account

This account is remarkably consistent with everything else we know about the events in May 1842. This is also very consistent with the other journal accounts and descriptions of the Anointed Quorum. The people that were part of that special quorum described it as a special order of the priesthood and saw it as a very sacred inner group within the larger group of Mormonism. If you haven’t read about the Anointed Quorum, then I would highly recommend that you do so. It certainly explains a lot about the events in Nauvoo.

6. Freemasonry

In 1841, a request was made to Abraham Jonas, who was the leader of Freemasonry in Illinois at the time, to form a new lodge in Nauvoo. The request was granted on October 15th, 1841 and lodge officers were appointed to oversee operations. One of the officers was George Miller, who Heber C. Kimball wrote in his journal was part of the Anointed Quorum at least as of May 1842.

This new Nauvoo lodge then met on March 15th, 1842 and officially organized the lodge and the officers. This ceremony was overseen by Abraham Jonas who personally approved of all the events. This is verified through Lodge records and Joseph’s own journal. It is important to also note that on that day Joseph joined Freemasonry as an Entered Apprentice which is the lowest level of freemasonry.

According to Lodge records and minutes of the meeting, the next day March 16th, Joseph applied for the “sublime degree of Master Mason” and was accepted. Shortly after this point Freemasonry rapidly started to grow in Nauvoo. By April 1843, there were at least 300 registered masons in Nauvoo which caused the creation of additional Masonic Lodges to be formed.

Very soon after this, the registered Masons in Nauvoo outnumbered the non-Mormon Masons in Illinois. This rapid growth caused a lot of friction between the Mormon and non-Mormon lodges. In addition, to Joseph becoming a Freemason we know that Hyrum and his father were also Freemasons along with almost all the Apostles. Therefore, it is safe to say that Freemasonry was a major part of Joseph’s life at that time.

The importance that Joseph felt in Freemasonry can be summed up in a private letter from Heber C. Kimball to Parley P. Pratt. This letter was written on June 17th, 1842, which was just a few months after Joseph entered Freemasonry. In the letter, Heber mentions to Parley that Joseph saw Freemasonry as an altered version of the true priesthood. Heber wrote:

We have organised a Lodge here.  of Masons.  since we obtained a charter. that was in March since that thare has near two hundred been made masons[.] Br Joseph and Sidny was the first that was Recieved in to the Lodg. all of the twelve have become members Except Orson P. he Hangs back. he will wake up soon, thare is a similarity.of preast Hood in masonry. Br Joseph ses masonary was taken from preast Hood but has become degennated. but menny things are perfect.

Heber C. Kimball – Letter to Parley P. Pratt – Transcript

This is so interesting because it sums up exactly what they were thinking at the time. Joseph saw many truths in Freemasonry and would very likely have adopted some of the signs, tokens, or ceremonies from Freemasonry in his own religious practices. This is exactly what we see happened if we look at things.

7. Masonic Parallels

The LDS temple endowment itself has changed a lot over the years, however the earliest accounts we have show a high amount of correlation between the endowment and Masonic initiation rites. This certainly makes sense if Joseph felt that Freemasonry had roots in the true priesthood worship of God. It is important to note though that up until 1990, when the LDS endowment drastically changed, that the endowment ceremony itself contained some identical aspects to Freemasonry and other very similar components also. This is incredibly unlikely to be coincidental and would be far more likely to be on intentional.

If we compare the endowment and Freemasonry then we can see these identical aspects. It is fair to say though that Freemasonry has much more complicated ceremonies than any specific account we have of the LDS temple endowment. They may have been much more similar in the past though since we know that the original endowment was an all-day ceremony. Today it is vastly shorter and is constantly getting even more so. The direct parallels are:

  1. Five points of fellowship – This was removed in 1990 however is an exact copy of Freemasonry. In both, the candidate and the master would embrace in a specific way and then maintain five points of physical contact.
  2. Blood oath penalties for disclosing aspects of the ceremony. These were also removed in 1990 and were lessened in a 1920 rework of the ceremony.
  3. Handshakes. Some of the handshakes involved are identical between both ceremonies
  4. The symbols of the compass and square are core parts of both ceremonies. However, to be fair those symbols do seem to be fundamental religious symbols for multiple different cultures and practices.
  5. Phraseology – Phrases such as “Has it a name?” or “three distinct knocks” are shared between both ceremonies

The ceremonies also share many other ritual similarities which are not direct equivalents, but highly related.

  1. Giving the candidate signs, tokens, and keywords
  2. Making oaths with associated penalties
  3. Knocking three times at an entrance
  4. Receiving a new name
  5. Acting out a ritualistic drama
  6. Passing from room to room depending on ceremony
  7. Wearing an apron
  8. Altering of clothing as the ceremony progresses
  9. Passing through a veil

As mentioned, the ceremonies are very similar in many ways however they can’t at all be described as exact copies. It is evident to me that Joseph used the parts of Freemasonry that he liked and essentially developed his own version of the ceremonies. Based on our current information, it is impossible to tell if Freemasonry is in fact a perverted form of Priesthood. However, it seems Joseph certainly felt so.

8. Book of Abraham

The March 15th 1842, edition of the Times and Seasons featured part of Joseph’s work on the Book of Abraham. In this edition of the newspaper the second facsimile was shown and briefly described. This would be about two months before Joseph purportedly administered the endowment in the upper floor of the Red Brick Store. In the facsimile Joseph mentioned that there would be secret signs and keywords that would eventually be revealed. The facsimile read:

God, sitting upon his throne, clothed with power and authority … representing, also, the grand Key words of the Holy Priesthood, as revealed … to all to whom the Priesthood was revealed.

Times and Seasons – March 15th 1842

This is very similar to what we know happens in the LDS endowment ceremony. An initiate is presented and then receives keywords, signs, tokens, and a new name. The person is then ushered into a new level of the Priesthood and access to God. It is very interesting that Joseph would have been working on the Book of Abraham around this time and had it officially published. This would strongly indicate that it was on Joseph’s mind and had become something that Joseph felt was true and certainly beneficial for the study of others.

9. Little Time Left

On April 28th, 1842, about one week before Joseph purportedly administered the first endowment ceremonies, Joseph met with the Relief Society and mentioned that he had very little time left and wanted to give them what they needed to operate in his absence. This is very interesting because it correlates exactly with the rest of Joseph’s activities. He knew the persecution was increasing and something was going to pop, therefore he needed to tie up all the loose ends while he still could.

In the address, which was recorded in the Relief Society meeting minutes by Eliza R. Snow, Joseph said:

He said as he had this opportunity, he was going to instruct the Society and point out the way for them to conduct, that they might act according to the will of God— that he did not know as he should have many opportunities of teaching them— that they were going to be left to themselves,— they would not long have him to instruct them— that the church would not have his instruction long, and the world would not be troubled with him a great while, and would not have his teachings— He spoke of delivering the keys to this Society and to the church— that according to his prayers God had appointed him elsewhere

Relief Society Meeting Minutes

This is very interesting, because of at least the middle of 1842, Joseph felt that his time was almost over. We would expect then that Joseph would take care of whatever he felt was important. If Joseph did in fact create and administer an endowment ceremony, then it seems highly consistent that he would initiate people into this special group starting in 1842. This is exactly what the Anointed Quorum group suggests happened.

10. Oath of Secrecy

Starting in early 1844, Joseph organized a group that was originally referred to as a “living constitution” and later referred to as the “Council of Fifty“. This group was initially responsible for finding a new location, outside of the United States, to establish a theocratic government with Joseph as the Prophet, Priest, and King. Over time this group also became responsible for organizing Joseph’s presidential campaign.

The important thing to note about this group is that each member was sworn to secrecy concerning the group activities. This was very likely because Joseph knew there were traitors in the church and he historically couldn’t always know who he could fully trust. Many of the people he had trusted in the past had betrayed him viciously. I can’t imagine what that was like. In speaking about the group’s creation, the Council of Fifty meeting minutes for March 11th, 1844 reads:

He [Elder Lucien Woodworth] said he had long desired it and now inasmuch as it had been proposed to organize this meeting into a council he was in favor of its being organized on an eternal principle after the order of God, every member of it to be bound to eternal secrecy as to what passed here, not to have the privilege of telling anything which might be talked of to any person even to our wives, and the man who broke the rule “should lose his cursed head”. Prest. Joseph gave much instructions on many subjects & laid down the order of organization after the pattern of heaven

Council of Fifty meeting minutes – March 11th 1844

Therefore, according to the meeting minutes, each participant of the council agreed to a solemn oath that they would not speak of the group or its activities. The month prior to the meeting, on February 15th, 1844, Joseph’s own journal records him asking a similar group for secrecy as well. His journal reads:

Joseph asked. can this council keep what I say. not make it Public— all held up their hands.

Joseph Smith Journal – February 15th, 1844

Based on these two accounts then it is entirely consistent to conclude that Joseph could have created and administered an endowment with a corresponding oath of secrecy. There is no reason to believe that if the endowment did happen that Joseph would have automatically felt it should be described publicly. At that time there were a few different things that Joseph was keeping secret for his, and the churches, protection.

11. Red Brick Store

The endowment was purportedly administered in the upper floor of the Red Brick Store on May 4th and 5th of 1842. After the completion of the Red Brick Store in 1841, then it quickly became the central location in Nauvoo. Meetings of many different kinds would be held in the upper floor. In addition, prior to the completion of the Nauvoo Masonic Lodge, the upper floor served as a temporary meeting location. In fact, almost everything that happened in Nauvoo happened in the Red Brick Store.

The reason this is important to note is that there are several accounts of the endowment as happening in the Red Brick Store as well. In addition, because of the many different meetings that constantly took place there, then they would have various supplies readily available as needed. In addition, if there were secret or sacred meetings there then that would very likely be seen as normal. The Joseph Smith Papers project describes the upper floor of the Red Brick Store as follows:

This room served at times as a school, courtroom, and meeting room for both civic and religious groups. These included Nauvoo’s Masonic lodge, the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, and the Council of Fifty.

Joseph Smith Papers Project

Therefore, we can easily see that the upper floor was a very versatile and central location. It would seem to be a natural choice of special meetings as it already was a central aspect of the city at the time. The Nauvoo temple would be a few years away from completion, in any form, so there were limited locations where an event like this could have naturally occurred.

12. History of the Saints

In 1842, John C. Bennett, released a book titled, History of the Saints, which discussed many aspects of Mormonism at the time. I completely agree that there are some aspects of Bennett which are shady and he certainly had a very colorful time in the church. However, that doesn’t mean we should discount what he published in his book. I also am not suggesting that we should automatically trust it either. We should just take it as another data point to consider.

During Bennett’s time in Nauvoo though, he was a counselor in the First Presidency of the church and the mayor of Nauvoo. It is no secret that he was an insider to many of the things that were happening at the time. In his book he speaks of a lot of things however one of the things is a secret ceremony that was administered in the upper floor of the Red Brick Store. According to his book, this ceremony had the following components:

  1. Joseph would administer the masonic based ceremony
  2. The room would be converted into a garden setting
  3. The individual is given secret signs and tokens
  4. The individual is given a special garment to wear.

This is frankly remarkable if Bennett is just making stuff up as it generally matches quite well to the endowment as practiced in the LDS church. It would mean though that either Bennett got his information from somewhere, or the creator of the LDS endowment copied the ceremony from Bennett, which wouldn’t make any sense. There is some speculation as to Bennett’s inside source. However, it seems to very likely be George Robinson, the son-in-law of Sidney Rigdon. At this time Sidney had a complicated relationship with Joseph and had already implicated Joseph in being inappropriate. Sydney was also kept out of loop on many things related to the church which seemed to anger Sydney a great deal.

13. Brigham’s Letter

On July 8th, 1844, Brigham Young, who was in Massachusetts at the time, wrote a letter to Willard Richards informing him of what he was doing and the events in his area. At that time, it had been a little over a week since Joseph was killed, however news travelled much slower back then of course. When Brigham heard of the death of Joseph he immediately rushed back to Nauvoo.

The importance of the letter though is in what Brigham mentioned to Willard. In the letter, Brigham says something that I believe many completely misunderstand. It is important to understand the context of what Brigham said and the specific subject of his statements. Brigham wrote:

I want to see you and the rest of the Bretherin in Nauvoo. Give my best love to Brothers Joseph [and] Hyram. I cannot be there to see them but I Pray for them continualy, and for you and all the Bretherin in our beloved Citty and I pray my Hevenly Father to preserve my Bretherin my famely and the hol citty. I pray that we may finish the Temple and get our indowment.

Brigham Young – Letter to Willard Richards – Transcript

Many people latch onto the phrase “get our endowment” and then assume this means that Brigham hadn’t received his endowment therefore Joseph couldn’t have administered it as many claim. I completely understand what they mean, however this is not what Brigham is saying in the slightest.

If we actually look at the text of the letter then Brigham is speaking of Joseph and Hyrum, then his Brethren which is likely the apostles, then the city, then his family, then back to the city. Finally he concludes by saying he wants “we” to finish the temple and get “our” endowment. Unless he and Willard were building the Nauvoo temple by themselves then it doesn’t make any sense to conclude that he was referring to them individually.

In context it is clear the Brigham was meaning the city or the entire people of Nauvoo. He wanted the temple to be completed so that they could administer the endowment there to everyone. The Red Brick Store was great for a small group of people. However, there was no way it could support the 1000’s of people that the Nauvoo temple could have supported.

14. Nauvoo Temple

Some have claimed that since the Nauvoo temple is totally different from the LDS temples today then there is no way that it could have been used for endowments by Joseph. I do understand the objection, however I think it exposes a misunderstanding. If the Nauvoo temple ever reached completion then it would have been about 11,000 sq ft with more than 40 individual rooms. There would have been an enormous amount of space to do almost anything they wanted there. I think modern LDS temples would be much better served modelled after the Nauvoo one frankly.

The objection though, in this case, is that since Brigham used the attic of the temple for the endowment, with movable partitions then Joseph couldn’t have created the ceremony. At the time of Joseph’s death the Nauvoo temple was nowhere near completion and was still completely in a state of construction. It was not usable at all. Some of the members referenced D&C 124 and concluded that they were rejected as a church because they didn’t complete the temple in time as God clearly asked them to do so. Other members doubled down and sped up the construction progress instead.

On December 10th, 1845, about a year and a half after Joseph was killed, the Nauvoo temple attic had been completed and was used for the initial endowment ceremonies by Brigham Young the new leader of the church. Again, the attic was used not because Joseph designed the temple poorly, but because it was the only dedicated place in the temple that could reasonably be used. The temple was absolutely huge for a building of the time and was taking much longer to complete than they initially planned for.


As mentioned at the beginning, there are personal testimonies to several of these things however they were typically recorded many years after the fact. I do believe some of them can be valuable for study, however I intentionally didn’t use them in this analysis so as to limit natural objections to the points.

I believe it is clear that Joseph did feel his time was short and he did introduce a masonic based ceremony that he felt would bring the members closer to God. At that stage of the church, the church had already rejected Zion by 1836, and failed to redeem Zion as God said they could. The church was turned over to Satan exactly as God said would happen if they didn’t hearken to his council, which they didn’t.

After 1836, the church had its darkest days ever with the Kirtland Safety Society, and the 1838 Mormon War. It is no stretch to say the church almost annihilated itself. This would not have happened if the members had still been God’s people.

The original endowment Joseph had planned was an endowment of spiritual power in the Kirtland temple. For some this was similar to the day of Pentecost in the book of Acts. They reported amazing divine manifestations and many miracles. However, most of the members didn’t live up to the spiritual preparation that Joseph repeatedly asked them to do so. Therefore, the Kirtland temple dedication was just another day for them. This was deeply disappointing to Joseph.

Since the members couldn’t prepare themselves spiritually, then I believe Joseph gave them a law of ordinances and rules instead. In many ways this was similar to the Israelites. God wants us to be sealed to him, but if we are unwilling then we can get a symbolic sealing instead. God wants to give us an endowment of spiritual power, however if we are unwilling then we can get a symbolic endowment instead. God wants us to become a temple, however if we are unwilling then we can get a physical temple instead.

According to the original language of D&C 110, the Kirtland temple will be used again for endowments of spiritual power. The current LDS endowment is just a shadow of the true endowment that God has planned for his servants. However, to qualify ourselves for this endowment, and the future Zion, then we must be willing to give God everything we have physically and our very lives if needed. This will be a sacrifice that is too great for many people.

For many are called, but few chosen; wherefore all do not have on the wedding garment.

JST Matthew 22:14
Author: Patrick